By Marcel Stoetzler
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In the course of the 12th and 13th centuries, nice new traits of Jewish proposal emerged whose largely various representatives--Kabbalists, philosophers, and astrologers--each claimed that their specific figuring out published the particular mystery of the Torah. They provided their very own readings in a coded type that has turn out to be appeared through many because the very essence of esotericism.
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Moreover this second line of argument would also be compatible with Durkheim’s republican, anti-antisemitic nationalism, which indeed invokes both Comte and Kant: the French revolutionary and positivist, postrevolutionary traditions, and the German idealist tradition. 28. Wernick, Auguste Comte and the Religion of Humanity, 110–11, writes that Comte described monotheism, via the idea of “personal salvation,” as the fount of egoism. Comte detected a contradiction in Catholicism between an 34 Stoetzler egoistic and abstract theology and love- engendering cultic practice and organizational structure.
If this is granted, it is unsurprising that the one will adopt characteristics of the other when their thought patterns (reasoning, ideology, imaginings, rhetoric) are seen to succeed: antisemites will become quasi-sociologists (see the quote from Drumont that opens this introduction), and sociologists— even if and when opposing antisemitism—will parallel, be ambivalent about, or partly resemble antisemites, or even join them to varying degrees. Their convergence will likely be stronger if the individuals in question originate from the same political, cultural, or social milieu, such as (in Germany) the late nineteenth- century national liberal milieu that produced most sociologists and some antisemites.
The mediating instance that makes the various intended and unintended meanings cohere is society, in critical theory conceived as “the totality” of social relations, in poststructuralism as discourse, episteme, and so on (which can be understood as amounting to the same thing): a structural dimension of society (the Durkheimian “thing”; It) that expresses itself in the utterances of the speakers and gives them meaning and resonance beyond their specific contexts as Introduction 33 long as the general context (the “type” of society; the “mode of production”; “civilization” in the sense developed by Robertson in this volume) remains the same.