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Extra info for An Introduction to System Programming - Based on the PDP11 (MacMillan Computer Science)
6 . The Inner loop would be an instruction sequence that scanned the list and. by Interchanging numbers as appropriate. placed the largest number In the first position. This sequence could be used repeatedly first to place the largest number In the first position. and then the second largest number In the second position and so on . Obviously the sequence will need to modify Itself as It runs in two ways . First the Inner loop must modify Itself In order to progress through the list. Second the outer loop must keep resetting the Instruction changed during the Inner loop so that the list can be scanned repeatedly.
The same policy Is continued to Include some 'zero address' functions but these are of more marginal Interest. An example Is HALT. The machine design also inco r porates a fourth, quite different. Instruction format which Is used specifically for the ' branc h ' (or goto) Instructions. Therefore, to summarise, the PDPll has the four different Instruction formats F2 As Ad Fl Ad FO and the branch Instructions . It Is conventional to refer to the location which a PDP11 Instruction changes as the destination hence Its address Is denoted by Ad, and the other location as the source having the address As .
Nor all the addressing modes . but students who find It understandable are making satisfactory progress. Those who do not understand the example should take It as a signal that they need to read again the preceding description of the PDPll. 4 SUBROUTINES Before undertaking any significant programming tasks. the use of subroutines must be discussed . A subroutine Is a sequence of Instructions that performs an action . likely to be needed several times In a program. organised so that only one copy of the Instructions need exist.