By Norman A. editor Stillman
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In the course of the 12th and 13th centuries, nice new developments of Jewish notion emerged whose largely diversified representatives--Kabbalists, philosophers, and astrologers--each claimed that their specific knowing published the particular mystery of the Torah. They provided their very own readings in a coded model that has turn out to be appeared by way of many because the very essence of esotericism.
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Extra info for AJS Review (The Journal of the Association for Jewish Studies), Vol 19, No. 1 1994
23 21. There is extensive biographical information on Hayim in the Ben-Yaakob volume, which served as the main source for several later publications on him. There is a preliminary analysis of Hayim's halakhic work in English (Jacobs 1978). 22. The authors of responsa sometimes abbreviate and reformulate the questions they discuss to make them devoid of details considered to be irrelevant. I suspect that this might be the case here, because the purported motive of the questioner is utterly pious.
17. Judgesand ritualslaughterers were salariedcommunalofficials,but the bureaucratic elementwas developedinconsistently. Once an official was hired, the communitywas not free to dismisshim or even to diminish his salary(Hayim3:62-63, 4:21-23). Thus the office of the hiredofficialthusdid not belong exclusivelyto the community;it also belongedto him. 18. In one of the numerousaccountsof bickeringover the positionof hakhanm bashi we hearof one incumbentwho was forcedto interrupthis sermonandleavethe synagoguepodium in tears(Ben-Yaakob1980a:168).
Hayim 4, Even ha'ezer:15). 10Similarly,we hear of customsof "thecommon people"(hamonha-'am)in a derogatorycontext(Somekh2:168). Members of the lower class are referredto stereotypically:butchersare "complete evildoers"(Somekh 2:195), and "mostbakersare boors"(Somekh2:159). It is termed"acustomthatthe synagoguesextons have fabricated(badu)"(Hayim4:2b;also Somekh2:168). Only sages were eulogizedin the synagoguewhen theydied. In one case an aged, pious, but unlearnedman was eulogizedin his modesthome, into which a great crowd pressed (Hayim 4:18b).