By George Phillips
To Cera1l1ics via George C. Phillips V AN NOSTRAND REINHOLD ____ long island Copyright ('> 1991 by way of Van Nostrand Reinhold Softcover reprint of the hardcover 1 st version 1991 Library of COnRreSS Catalog Card quantity 91.19587 ISBN.13: 978.94.011--6975.2 All rights eserve r d. No a part of this paintings coated by means of the copyright hereon could be rcproduccd or uscd in any shape or by way of any means-graphic. digital. or meehaniclli. together with photocopying. recording. taping. or details garage and retrieval systems-without written permission of the writer. synthetic within the u . s . released through Van Nostrand Reinhold a hundred and fifteen 5th road big apple. ny 10003 Chapman and Ha ll 2-6 Boundary Row London. SEI SHN. England Thomas Nelson Australia 102 Dodds highway South Melbourne 3205 Victoria. Australia Nelson Canada 1120 Birchmounl highway Scarborough. Ontario M IK 5G4. Canada sixteen 15 14 thirteen 12 II 10 nine eight 7 6 five four three 2 Library or Congress Cataloging-in. ebook information Phillips. George C .. 1937- A concise inlrodu!;tion to ceramics/by George C. Phillips. p. cm. contains bibliographical referen!;es and index. ISBN-13: 978-94-011--6975-2 e-ISBN-13: 978-94-011--6973-8 001:10: 1007/978-94-011--6973-8 I. Cerami!;s. L Tille.
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SCREENING MAGNETIC SEPARATION ~ ! SPRAY DRY ~ DRY PRESSING HGURE 4·1. 1 FILTER PRESS ~ PLASTIC FORMING I CASTING A wet process for powder preparation. WPUNCH FIGURE 4·2. Dry press operation: initial phase. Once the die cavity is filled with powder, the material is compacted by applying unidirectional pressure through the upper punch and the lower punch, as shown in Figure 4-3. Core pins, which can be attached to the lower punches, can be used to fabricate holes through pressed parts. After pressing, the part is ejected, and the fill shoe is ready to repeat the operation (see Figure 4-4).
Annealing: the removal of preexisting thermal stresses caused by rapid cooling of the glass during the forming process. The stresses can be removed by heating the glass slightly and cooling it relatively slowly. 2. Tempering: applying compressive surface stresses by rapid quenching (after annealing, which removes uncontrolled stresses). In order to break a part that is tempered, the compressive stresses must be exceeded. When a fracture does occur, the breakage is spontaneous within the glass because of the stressed condition, and it shatters into very small pieces.
The plastic state alIows deformation or shaping without rupture, and is a technique widely used by artists to make ceramic ware. Two commercial techniques are used to form ware in the plastic condition: extrusion and jiggering. Extrusion involves the forcing of a stiff plastic mix through a die orifice. Compaction occurs by using augers to force the plastic material into smaller volumes, as shown in Figure 4-7. Extrusion is used to make parts having a constant cross section, such as tubing and bricks.